November 1989

  • 3
    Poland: The Czechoslovak Independent Culture Festival, organised by the Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity (Solidarność Polsko-Czechosłowacka), starts in Wrocław; it is a meeting of artists living in the country and in emigration with several thousands of young people from Czechoslovakia.
  • 4
    German Democratic Republic: Over 500,000 people protest in Berlin.
  • 9
    German Democratic Republic: The announcement that the border with the Federal Republic of Germany will be opened leads to the fall of the Berlin Wall.
  • 10
    Bulgaria: Todor Zhivkov is removed from the position of the Secretary General of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Balgarska komunistitscheska partia); he is replaced by Petar Mladenov.
  • 12
    Soviet Union: The Supreme Council of Estonia declares the country occupied by the USSR.
  • 17
    Czechoslovakia: Students’ peace demonstration is brutally attacked by the police; onset of the “Velvet Revolution”; students’ strikes start on the following day.
  • 18
    Bulgaria: Onset of mass demonstrations in Sofia.
  • 26
    Hungary: Disputes between the authorities and the opposition are settled in a referendum.
  • 27
    Czechoslovakia: A two-hour general strike shows the strength of the opposition and forces the authorities to make concessions.